Political Economy: Its Objects, Uses, and Principles: Considered with Reference to the Condition of the American People, with a Summary, for the Use of Students

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Harper, 1862 - Capitalism - 318 pages
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Page 61 - land" includes not only the face of the earth, but everything under it, or over it.
Page 139 - Rent is that portion of the produce of the earth, which is paid to the landlord for the use of the original and indestructible powers of the soil.
Page 68 - In watchmaking, as Mr. Babbage observes, " it was stated in evidence before a Committee of the House of Commons, that there are a hundred and two distinct branches of this art, to each of which a boy may be put apprentice ; and that he only learns his master's department, and is unable, after his apprenticeship has expired, without subsequent instruction, to work at any other branch. The watch-finisher, whose business...
Page 72 - And in the pursuit of this object, without any comprehensive wisdom, or any need of it, they cooperate, unknowingly, in conducting a system which, we may safely say, no human wisdom directed to that end could have conducted so well : — the system by which this enormous population is fed from day to day.
Page 235 - ... artificers, handicraftsmen and labourers have made confederacies and promises, and have sworn mutual oaths not only that they should not meddle one with another's work, and perform and finish that another hath begun, but also to constitute and appoint how much work they shall do in a day, and what hours and times they shall work...
Page 50 - each affording to the landlord a fair rent, and each, moreover, furnishing employment and abundance to an honest farmer, and a tribe of contented cottagers. Both may be equally valuable, but are they equal in their influence on the sum of human enjoyment ? Who can doubt that slavery is a means of increasing the quantity of exchangeable wealth in the world ? but will any one recommend it as a means of augmenting the mass of human happiness ? The economists have hitherto, we believe without exception,...
Page 226 - He seemed to deprive her of all resources, such as arts, commerce, money, and walls; ambition prevailed among the citizens without hopes of improving their fortune; they had natural sentiments without the tie of a son, husband, or father; and chastity was stripped even of modesty and shame. This was the road that led Sparta to grandeur and glory; and so infallible were these institutions, that it signified nothing to gain a victory over that republic without subverting her polity.
Page 258 - States than the absence of those systems of internal restrictions and monopoly which continue to disfigure the state of society in other countries. No law exists here directly or indirectly confining man to a particular occupation or place, or excluding any citizen from any branch he may at any time think proper to pursue. Industry is in every respect perfectly free and unfettered; every species of trade, commerce, art, profession, and manufacture being equally opened to all, without requiring any...
Page 14 - it must be advantageous to know what is most perfect in the kind, that we may be able to bring any real constitution or form of government as near it as possible, by such gende alterations and innovations as may not give too great disturbance to society.
Page 257 - Nominally the best workman gets the place; but you will easily conceive that, in reality, some kind of favouritism must generally decide it. Thus is every man obliged to submit to all the chances of a popular election whether he shall be allowed to work for his bread ; and that, too, in a country where the people are not permitted to have any agency in choosing their rulers. But the restraints on journeymen, in that country, are still more oppressive. As soon as the years of apprenticeship have expired,...

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