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The Sun of Righteousness shall arise, with healing under his wings. JAMES A. THOME.



The event of emancipation passed peaceably. The first of August, 1834, is universally regarded in ANTIGUA, as having presented a most imposing and sublime moral spectacle. It is almost impossible to be in the company of a missionary, a planter, or an emancipated negro, for ten minutes, without hearing some allusion to that occasion.

In every quarter we were assured that the day was like a Sabbath. Work had ceased, the hum of business was still, and noise and tumult were unheard on the streets. Tranquillity pervaded the towns and country. A Sabbath indeed! when the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary were at rest, and the slave was free from his master! The planters informed us that they went to the chapels where their own people were assembled, greeted them, shook hands with them, and exchanged the most hearty good wishes.

There has been since emancipation, not only no rebellion in fact, but no fear of it in Antigua. The militia were not called out during Christinas holidays. Before emancipation, martial law invariably prevailed on the holidays, but the very first Christmas after cmancipation, the Governor made a proclamation stating that in consequence of the abolition of slavery, it was no longer necessary to resort to such a precaution. There has not been a parade of soldiery on any subsequent Christmas.

Emancipation is regarded by all classes as a great blessing to the island. There is not a class, or party, or sect, who do not esteem the abolition of slavery as a special blessing to them. The rich, be cause it relieved them of "property" which was fast becoming a disgrace, as it had always been a vexation and a tax, and because it has emancipated them from the terrors of insurrection, which kept them all their life time subject to bondage. The poor whites-be

cause it lifted from off them the yoke of civil oppression. The free colored population-because it gave the death blow to the prejudice that crushed them, and opened the prospect of social, civil, and political equality with the whites. The slaves-because it broke open their dungeon, led them out to liberty, and gave them, in one munificent donation, their wives, their children, their bodies, their souls -every thing!

The negroes work more cheerfully, and do their work better than they did during slavery. Wages are found to be an ample substi tute for the lash-they never fail to secure the amount of labor desired. This is particularly true where task work is tried, which is done occasionally in cases of a pressing nature, when considerable effort is required.

The governor said, "The negróes are as a race remarkable for docility; they are very easily controlled by kind influence. It is only necessary to gain their confidence, and you can sway them as you please."

Let it be remembered that the negroes of Antigua passed, "by a single jump, from absolute slavery to unqualified freedom." In proof of their subordination to law, we give the testimony of planters, and quote also from the police reports sent in monthly to the Governor. "I have found that the negroes are readily controlled by law; more so perhaps than the laboring classes in other countries."-Da. vid Granstoun, Esq.

"The conduct of the negro population generally, has surpassed all expectation. They are as pliant to the hand of legislation, as any people; perhaps more so than some."-Wesleyan Missionary.

"Before emancipation took place, there was the bitterest opposition to it among the planters. But after freedom came, they were delighted with the change. I felt strong opposition myself, being accordingly unwilling to give up my power of command. But I shall never forget how differently I felt when freedom took place. I arose from my bed on the first of August, exclaiming with joy, ‘I am free, I am free; I was the greatest slave on the estate, but now I am free.' "Mr. J. Howell.

BARBADOES." The state of crime is not so bad by any means as we might have expected among the negroes-just released from such a degrading bondage. Considering the state of ignorance in which they have been kept, and the immoral examples set them by the lower class of whites, it is matter of astonishment that they should behave so well.

"The apprentices would have a great respect for law, were it not for the erroneous proceedings of the managers, overseers, &c. in taking them before the magistrates for every petty offence, and often abusing the magistrate in the presence of the apprentices, when his decision does not please them.

"Not the slightest sense of insecurity. As a proof of this, property has, since the commencement of the apprenticeship, increased in value considerably—at least one third.

"The most prejudiced planters would not return to the old system if they possibly could. They admit that they got more work from

the laborers now than they formerly did, and they are relieved from a great responsibility."-Joseph Hamilton.

According to the declaration of one of the special magistrates, "Barbadoes has long been distinguished for its devotion to slavery." There is probably no portion of the globe where slave-holding, slavedriving, and slave-labor, have been reduced to a more perfect system. The records of slavery in Barbadoes are stained with bloody atrocities. The planters uniformly spoke of slavery as a system of cruelties.

The slaves were not unfrequently worked in the streets of Bridge. town with chains on the wrists and ankles. Flogging on the estates and in the town, were no less public than frequent, and there was an utter shamelessness often in the manner of its infliction. Even women were stripped naked on the sides of the streets, and their backs lacerated with the whip. It was a common practice, when a slave of fended a white man, for the master to send for a public whipper, and order him to take the slave before the door of the person offended, and flog him till the latter was satisfied. White females would order their male slaves to be stripped naked in their presence and and flogged, while they would look on to see that their orders were faithfully executed. Mr. Prescod mentioned an instance which he himself witnessed near Bridgetown. He had seen an aged female slave, stripped and whipped by her own son, a child of twelve, at the command of the mistress.

Hostility to emancipation prevailed in Barbadoes. That island has always been peculiarly attached to slavery. From the beginning of the anti-slavery agitations in England, the Barbadians distinguished themselves by their inveterate opposition. As the grand result approximated they increased their resistance. They appealed, remon strated, begged, threatened, deprecated, and imprecated. They continually protested that abolition would ruin the colony-that the negroes could never be brought to work-especially to raise sugarwithout the whip. They both besought and demanded of the English that they should cease their interference with their. private affairs and personal property.


From statements already made, the reader will see how great a change has come over the feelings of the planters. If he has followed us, he has seen tranquillity taking the place of insurrections, a sense of security succeeding to gloomy forebodings, and public or der supplanting mob law; he has seen subordination to authority, peacefulness, industry, and increasing morality, characterizing the negro population; he has seen property rising in value, crime lessening, expenses of labor diminishing, the whole island blooming with unexampled cultivation, and waving with crops unprecedented in the memory of its inhabitants; above all, he has seen licentiousness decreasing, prejudice fading away, marriage extending, education spreading, and religion preparing to multiply her churches and missionaries over the land.

These are the blessings of abolition-begun only, and but partially realized as yet, but promising 'a rich maturity in time to come, after the work of freedom shall have been completed.

We were introduced to the Solicitor-General, WILLIAM HENRY ANDERSON, Esq. of Kingston. Mr. A. is a Scotchman, and has resided in Jamaica for more than six years. We found him the fearless advocate of negro emancipation. He exposed the corruptions and abominations of the apprenticeship without reserve. He says; "A very material change for the better has taken place in the sentiments of the community since slavery was abolished. Religion and education were formerly opposed as subversive of the security of property; now they are in the most direct manner encouraged as its best sup. port. The value of all kinds of property has risen considerably, and a general sense of security appears to be rapidly pervading the public mind. I have not heard one man assert that it would be an ad. vantage to return to slavery, even were it practicable; and I believe that the public is beginning to see that slave-labor is not the cheapest. "The prejudices against color are rapidly vanishing. I do not think there is a respectable man, I mean one who would be regarded as respectable on account of his good sense and weight of character, who would impugn another's conduct for associating with persons of color. So far as my observation goes, those who would formerly have acted on these prejudices, will be ashamed to own that they had entertained them. The distinction of superior acquirements still be longs to the whites, as a body; but that, and character, will shortly be the only distinguishing mark recognized among us.

"I think the negroes might have been emancipated as safely in 1834, as in 1840; and had the emancipation then taken place, they would be found much further in advance in 1840, than they can be after the expiration of the present period of apprenticeship, through which all, both apprentices and masters, are laboring heavily."

Trade is now equalizing itself among all classes. A spirit of competition is awakened, banks have been established, steam navigation introduced, rail-roads projected, old highways repaired, and new ones opened. The descendants of the slaves are rapidly supplying the places which were formerly filled by whites from abroad.

We had some conversation with several apprentices, who called on Mr. Bourne for advice and aid. They all thought the apprenticeship very hard, but still, on the whole, liked it better than slavery. They "were killed too bad," that was their expression-during slaverywere worked hard and terribly flogged. They were up ever so early and late-went out in the mountains to work, when so cold busha would have to cover himself up on the ground. Had little time to eat, or go to meeting. 'Twas all slash, slash! Now they couldn't be flogged, unless the magistrate said so. Still the busha was very hard to them, and many of the apprentices run away to the woods, they are so badly used.

'The actual working of the apprenticeship in Jamaica, was the specific object of our investigations in that island. That it had not operated so happily as in Barbadoes, and in most of the other colonies, was admitted by all parties. As to the degree of its failure, we were satisfied it was not so great as had been represented. There has been nothing of an insurrectionary character since the abolition


We seek in vain in the page of history for the results of honesty, justice and kindness, as exemplified in the dealings of nation towards nation; or in the conduct of the mighty and powerful towards the defenceless and the weak. It was reserved for England to furnish this missing chapter in the history of the world-this unlimned picture in the Gallery of Time.

Thus will Truth and Justice finally triumph over falsehood and oppression. Their high influence, viewless as the winds, and intan gible as the magnet's sympathy, wafted from heart to heart, with all the powers of Nature for allies, gathers strength with each setting sun; and the oppressors who, trembling with the presentiment of defeat, attempt to stay the progress of Liberty by fierce resolves, and penal laws, and brutal force, exhibit wisdom akin to that of Xerxes, when he would bind the Hellespont with fetters, and punish it with Scourges.


A black empire is destined to spread over the Caribbean sea, and shelter, under the banner of its power, the long-bound descendants of Africa! Well-let it spread! If there be any truth in the origi nal excuse for bringing negroes to the tropical regions of America, that white men could not cultivate their soil, and live, it will be a fortunate event for agriculture, commerce and humanity; for if the islands yield their products so abundantly to the labor of chained slaves, how much more largely will they repay the cultivation of freemen !

Let it spread-for if the horrible slave-trade is ever to be actually abolished, it must be preceded by cutting off the ownership of Eu rope in every territory where white hands cannot, or will not labor. Let it spread-for if old Africa is ever to be civilized-if her parched solitudes are ever to be refreshed by the streams of knowledge, and smile with the green and bloomy growth of intellectual and moral culturc-if ever Ethiopia is to "stretch forth her hands to God," and the Sun of Righteousness wheel his bright chariot over the idle realms of that benighted continent, it must all be done through the instru mentality of her American offspring. And it shall be done. The warm-hearted men, whom their brethren sold into bondage, are destined yet to supply those brethren with the best of food, from the full granaries of their power, and wealth, and knowledge: the silver cup too shall be sent along, in which to pledge the wine of reconciliation and joy, for the famine shall be removed from the land of their fathers.


"One who abhors the sham republicanism of a republic which holds nearly three millions of men, women, and children in slavery -who loathes from the lowest depths of his soul the time-serving, pusillanimous and spurious christianity of churches which refuse to

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