Second Treatise of Government

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Amazon Digital Services LLC - KDP Print US, Dec 4, 2018 - Political Science - 90 pages
CHAPTER. I.AN ESSAY CONCERNING THE TRUE ORIGINAL, EXTENT AND END OF CIVILGOVERNMENTSect. 1. It having been shewn in the foregoing discourse, (1). That Adam had not, either by natural right of fatherhood, or bypositive donation from God, any such authority over his children, ordominion over the world, as is pretended: (2). That if he had, his heirs, yet, had no right to it: (3). That if his heirs had, there being no law of nature nor positivelaw of God that determines which is the right heir in all cases that mayarise, the right of succession, and consequently of bearing rule, couldnot have been certainly determined: (4). That if even that had been determined, yet the knowledge of whichis the eldest line of Adam's posterity, being so long since utterlylost, that in the races of mankind and families of the world, thereremains not to one above another, the least pretence to be the eldesthouse, and to have the right of inheritance: All these premises having, as I think, been clearly made out, it isimpossible that the rulers now on earth should make any benefit, orderive any the least shadow of authority from that, which is held to bethe fountain of all power, Adam's private dominion and paternaljurisdiction; so that he that will not give just occasion to think thatall government in the world is the product only of force and violence, and that men live together by no other rules but that of beasts, wherethe strongest carries it, and so lay a foundation for perpetual disorderand mischief, tumult, sedition and rebellion, (things that the followersof that hypothesis so loudly cry out against) must of necessity find outanother rise of government, another original of political power, andanother way of designing and knowing the persons that have it, than whatSir Robert Filmer hath taught us.Sect. 2. To this purpose, I think it may not be amiss, to set down whatI take to be political power; that the power of a MAGISTRATE over asubject may be distinguished from that of a FATHER over his children, aMASTER over his servant, a HUSBAND over his wife, and a LORD over hisslave. All which distinct powers happening sometimes together in thesame man, if he be considered under these different relations, it mayhelp us to distinguish these powers one from wealth, a father of afamily, and a captain of a galley.Sect. 3. POLITICAL POWER, then, I take to be a RIGHT of making laws withpenalties of death, and consequently all less penalties, for theregulating and preserving of property, and of employing the force of thecommunity, in the execution of such laws, and in the defence of thecommonwealth from foreign injury; and all this only for the publi

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